Mars

Launch

Arrival

Type

Name

Details

circa 1650

 

 

Earth based

Giovanni Cassini

Measured rotation of Marsís accurately to within 3 minutes.

1659

 

 

Earth based

Christian Huygens

First diagram of Sirtis Major

1877

 

 

Earth based

Giovanni Sciaperelli

Canals on Mars

1996

 

 

Earth based

Hubbell Space Telescope

Dust storms seen due to differential in temperature between poles and plains.

1984

 

 

Earth based

JPL

Shows that features on Mar's northern plain resemble palaeolake shorelines in Nevada and Utah suggesting water was once present on the surface.

1962

1 November

 

failure

Mars1

first probe to Mars flew by but no data collected

1964

28 November

14 July 65

Flyby

Mariner 4

Revealed arid cratered surface

1969

24 February

31 July

Flyby

Mariner 6

Photographed equatorial region.

1969

27 March

4 August

Flyby

Mariner 7

Examined southern Hemisphere

1971

13 November

 

Orbiter

Mariner 9

First detailed image of moon's Phobos and Deimos

1971

30 May

13 November

Orbiter

Mariner 9

Maps Martian surface between November 1971 and October 1972

1988

12 July

 

Orbiter

Phobos 2

Contact lost 27 March 1989 some data returned

1996

7 November

 

Orbiter

Mars Global Surveyor

Extensive aero braking deceleration time delays project start

1999

 

October

Orbiter

Mars Climate Orbiter

Failed; aerobraking phase too close to surface

1971

1 November

 

hard landing

Mars 1

Contact Lost at 106,000 Km.

1971

19 May

27 November

hard landing

Mars 2

No Image received from lander.

1996

October

 

Penetrative landing

Mars 96

Failed

1999

3 January 1999

3 December 1999

Penetrative Landing

Deep Space 2

Contact lost after landing phase

1975

20 August

19 June 1976

soft landing

Viking 1

Viking 1 searches for life on Mars and analyses surface soil and weather systems. It continues to function until November 1982

1975

09 September

7 August 1976

soft landing

Viking 2

Viking 2 has a similar mission to Viking 1 and ceases to function in April 1980. Detects Mars quakes

1997

 4 December 1996

July 4 1997

soft landing

Mars Pathfinder

Sojourner a rover released on surface.

1999

3 January 1999

3 December 1999

soft lander Mars Polar Lander Contact lost after landing phase

1984

 

 

sample returned

Antarctic meteor

Sample ALH 8400 1 16 million year old Martian rock showing carbonaceous probably organic material.

 

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